Skønlitteraturen som samfundets spejlbillede: Anmeldelse af ”Fragmenter av fortid: Historiens rolle i russisk samtidslitteratur” af Ingunn Lunde

Af Katrine Overgaard Stevnhøj Pedersen, cand.mag i Østeuropastudier

Mellem historieskrivning og fortællekunst

Hvorfor studere erindringskultur i en litteraturhistorisk kontekst? Hukommelse er uundgåeligt sammenkædet med det at fortælle, og hvordan vi vælger at fortælle vores fortid, vil påvirke vores syn på samtiden. På denne måde fungerer skønlitteraturen som en form for spejling af vores samfundsmæssige samtid. Særligt i Rusland har litteraturen traditionelt set haft en betydningsfuld, didaktisk rolle, og litteraturen kan derfor ses som en vigtig del af den kollektive erindringskultur. Med udgangspunkt i en række udvalgte litterære værker, viser Ingunn Lunde i Fragmenter av fortid, hvordan skønlitteraturen bidrager til den kollektive erindring i samtidens Rusland. I sit studie retter Lunde sit fokus mod russisk skønlitteratur fra det 21. århundrede:

”Den postsovjetiske æra skapte radikalt nye betingelser for litteraturen, etter nesten 70 år med et ideologisk styrt, offisielt kulturliv, ledsaget av en dissidentkultur i mangfoldige varianter. Snart 30 år etter Sovjetunionens kollaps kan vi danne oss et klarere bilde av hvordan litteraturen udviklet seg etter de turbulente, frigjørende 1900-årene, og hvordan nye retninger i politikk, økonomi og samfunnsliv har påvirket tendensene på 2000-tallet.”

Fragmenter av fortid er inddelt i seks kapitler med hvert sit tematiske fokus. Bogen indledes med et historisk baggrundskapitel, ”Kampen om fortiden”, som sætter de historiske rammer for resten af værket. Som det påpeges i kapitlet, er det ikke kun i skønlitteraturen, at historien har en fremtrædende plads. Nej, historiepolitik og mindekultur står højt på agendaen i samtidens Rusland. Skønlitteratur og samfundsdebat er dog ikke nødvendigvis to adskilte diskurser, og i Rusland findes et exceptionelt stærkt bånd mellem litteratur og samfund:

”Russland har lange tradisjoner for skjønnlitteratur som en essensiell del av samfunnsdebatten. Samtidig gjør den skjønnlitterære konteksten at det åpner seg et annet, ofte større refleksjonsrom for aktuelle spørsmål enn i den offentlige debatten.”

I kapitlet fokuserer Lunde på historiebrug i tiden under perestrojka og frem til i dag. I perestrojkaårene skabte Mikhail Gorbatjov, med sit omfattende reformprogram, historie. Men, skriver Lunde, perestrojka handlede også om historien. En forudsætning for reformprogrammet var en øget åbenhed – glasnost. Glasnost gjorde det ikke alene legitimt at tale om landets aktuelle tilstand, men initierede også begyndelsen på en offentlig samtale vedrørende den nære, sovjetiske historie. I årene mellem perestrojka og Sovjetunionens sammenbrud i 1991, var historien et omdiskuteret emne i den offentlige debat. I takt med den øgede bevågenhed om de historiske kendsgerninger, steg også behovet for en bearbejdelse og forståelse af fortidens kompleksitet.

Perestrojkatidens omvæltninger fik altså ikke kun indflydelse på det politiske liv i Sovjetunionen. Den øgede åbenhed og lempelse af censuren gjorde det muligt at skrive kritisk samtidslitteratur og øgede også tilgængeligheden af den litteratur, som tidligere havde været forbudt. Ifølge Lunde var det for nogle af samtidens forfattere vigtigt at frigøre sig fra det stærke ansvar, som litteraturen traditionelt har båret i Rusland. Lunde citerer forfatteren Viktor Jerofejevs essay fra 1990, ”Gravøl over sovjetlitteraturen”, hvori han argumenterer for, at den russiske litteratur måtte frigøre sig fra sin didaktiske og moralistiske tradition. I de følgende kapitler viser Lunde, hvordan netop dette opgør med fortidens æstetiske normer kan ses i den russiske samtidslitteratur fra 1999 og frem til i dag.

 

En rejse udi tid og historie, sprog og litteratur

Forholdet mellem sprog og litteratur, og hvordan vores sprogbrug påvirker vores forståelse af tid og historie, er en central problemstilling i Fragmenter av fortid:

”Den russiske postmodernismen forsøker å dekonstruere den totalitære ideologien, særlig gjennom en ’utstilling’ av totalitær språkbrug som blottlegger det ideologiske språkets absurditeter. Klitsjeer og slagord bliver ’demontert’, de- og rekontekstualisert på måter som fremviser tomheten de innehar.”

Som eksempel på den russiske postmodernisme som var central i den litterære debat i 1990erne i Rusland, fremhæver Lunde forfattere som Vladmir Sorokin og Viktor Pelevin, som med deres særegne fortællestruktur og brug af symboler fra fortid såvel som fremtid repræsenterer en dekonstruktion af sprog og ideologi. Blandt forfattere som bruger dekonstruktion af sproget som litterært virkemiddel findes også Tatjana Tolstaja og Dmitrij Glukhovskij, der med deres dystopiske skildringer af fremtidens Rusland, forholder sig både ironisk og kritisk til det kulturelle og politiske liv i dagens Rusland.

Når både fortiden og fremtiden skildres i den skønlitterære tekst, får selve begrebet tid en fremtrædende rolle i fortællingen. For at illustrere forbindelsen mellem tid og rum i litteraturen, tager Lunde udgangspunkt i blandt andre den russiske semiotiker Mikhail Bakhtin og den russiske samtidsforfatter Mikhail Sjisjkin. Mens Tolstaja og Glukhovskij bruger sproget som litterært virkemiddel, leger Sjisjkins litteratur med flere tid- og rumdimensioner og udfordrer traditionelle konventioner om tid og rum i litteraturen.

 

Mellem fakta og fiktion i den historiske roman

Når forfattere blander historie og litteratur, fakta og fiktion, kan der dog opstå problemer. Som eksempel på en forfatter, der bevæger sig i krydsfeltet mellem fakta og fiktion, fremhæver Lunde den hviderussiske forfatter Svetlana Aleksijevitj. Forfatteren og journalisten, som modtog Nobelprisen for litteratur i 2015, er kendt for sine polyfoniske romaner baseret på hundredvis af vidnesbyrd. Mens Aleksijevitj baserer sin prosa på empiri fra den faktuelle verden, har kritikere sat spørgsmålstegn ved den faktuelle værdi af hendes værker.

Det er ikke kun den nære, sovjetiske fortid som bearbejdes i den russiske samtidslitteratur. Som et eksempel på en forfatter som graver dybere i den russiske historie, fremhæver Lunde Mikhail Gigolasjvili som i sin roman Det hemmelige år (Tajnyj god, 2017), hvori han går tilbage til 1500-tallet og skildrer to uger i Ivan IV’s liv. Ivan IV, også kendt som Ivan den Grusomme på dansk og norsk, er som historisk person berygtet for sit terrorregime og kyniske magtbrug. Lunde redegør for, hvordan Ivan IV er blevet fremstillet i mindekulturen i Rusland i henholdsvis det 19. og 20. århundrede, og argumenterer for, at Det hemmelige år skaber et mere komplekst billede af en berygtet historisk person. På denne måde kan brugen af historien og historiske personer i den fiktive litteratur fungere som et prisme, hvorigennem vi kan anskue historien fra en alternativ vinkel.

 

Forfatteren som menneskets talerør

Mens Gigolasjvili menneskeliggør historien igennem Ivan IV, bruger andre af samtidens forfattere det enkelte almindelige menneske som billede på den større historie. I bogens afsluttende kapitel ”Mennesket i historien: totalitære erfaringer”, studerer Lunde hvordan samtidens forfattere skriver om den nære, totalitære sovjetiske fortid. Vi kigger altså på, hvordan nutidens forfatter fortolker fortiden, ikke på hvordan fortidens forfatter betragtede sin samtid.

I kapitlet viser Lunde hvordan den lille historie, eksempelvis Guzel Jakhinas skildring af en tatarkvinde, som sendes i eksil i Sibirien i forbindelse med tvangskollektiviseringen i 1929-1933 (Zulejkha åbner øjnene, Zulejka otkryvaet glaza, 2015), bliver en del af et større historisk narrativ om den stalinistiske terror. Lunde beskriver dette som et slags vekselvirkning mellem den store og den lille historie, hvor forfatteren kan agere som enkeltmenneskets talerør i den større historieskrivning.

Med sin bog viser Lunde, hvor stor en variation der findes blandt russiske samtidsforfatteres tilgang til at tematisere fortiden. Fælles for dem alle er dog, at litteraturen forstås som et refleksionsrum, der tilbyder en arena for fortolkning, bearbejdelse og diskussion af fortidens kompleksitet. Lunde præsenterer sin læser for en række russisksprogede forfattere, som er mindre kendte i den vestlige verden, og mens hun også inddrager velkendte navne som Svetlana Aleksijevitj, præsenteres også værker af forfattere som Guzel Jakhina, der endnu ikke er oversat til hverken norsk eller dansk. Alle titler og uddrag fra litterære værker er oversat til norsk med den oprindelige translittererede russiske titel i parentes. Man behøver altså ikke at være russiskkyndig for at forstå konteksten, men der bliver samtidig taget hensyn til de læsere, som ønsker at kende de oprindelige russiske titler.

Har man allerede studeret erindringskultur og historiebrug i den russiske litteratur, er man sandsynligvis ofte stødt på forfattere som eksempelvis Aleksandr Solzjenitsyn, Varlam Sjalamov, Marina Tsvetajeva og Anna Akhmatova. I sit studie af historiens rolle i russisk samtidslitteratur forholder Lunde sig til det 20. århundredes litteraturhistorie i Rusland, men samtidens forfattere får lov til at stå på ryggen af deres forfædre, fremfor i deres skygge.

Hvis man tror, at man bliver præsenteret for en kronologisk gennemgang af det 21. århundredes litteraturhistorie, bliver man måske skuffet. Da Lundes tilgang er tematisk, snarere end kronologisk, vil det muligvis være en fordel at have et kendskab til enten moderne russisk historie eller litteraturhistorie generelt, hvis man skal have et fuldt udbytte af værket.

Hvordan vi vælger at gengive vores fortid, siger ofte mere om den samtid vi lever i. Med Fragmenter av fortid: Historiens rolle i russisk samtidslitteratur fremhæver Ingunn Lunde litteraturens unikke evne til at spejle ikke blot historien, men også vores samtid, og understreger dermed vigtigheden i at studere litteraturen, hvis man vil forstå erindringskultur og historiebrug i det moderne Rusland.

 

Ingunn Lunde er professor i russisk ved Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.

Fragmenter av fortid: Historiens rolle i russisk samtidslitteratur er udkommet ved Dreyers Forlag Oslo i 2019. Bogen er udgivet med større fra Bergen Universitetsfond og Institut for Fremmedsprog ved Universitetet i Bergen.

Dette indlæg blev udgivet i Anmeldelser og tagget , , , , . Bogmærk permalinket.

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